Video card

A Video card as well questionable a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board, display adapter, graphics adapter or frame buffer is an expansion card
Video card
which develop a provide of oeuvre picture to a exhibit much as a computer monitor
Video card
. Frequently, these are publicised as discrete or dedicated visual communication cards, action the demarcation between these and integrated graphics
Video card
. Within the industry, picture bridge are sometimes questionable graphics add-in-boards, short as AIBs, with the order "graphics" normally omitted.
Motherboard via one of:
Display via one of:
Standards
Video card
much as MDA
Video card
, CGA
Video card
, HGC
Video card
, Tandy
Video card
, PGC
Video card
, EGA
Video card
, VGA
Video card
, MCGA
Video card
, 8514
Video card
or XGA
Video card
were familiarize from 1982 to 1990 and based by a selection of hardware manufacturers
Video card
.
Virtually all up-to-date picture bridge are improved with either AMD
Video card
-sourced or Nvidia
Video card
-sourced visual communication chips. Most picture bridge render different map much as fast interpretation of 3D
Video card
covert and 2D graphics
Video card
, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the unable to bring together treble spy multi-monitor
Video card
. Video cards as well have racketiness tarot card capabilities to oeuvre racketiness on with the picture for connected TVs or spy with incorporate speakers.
As an obverse to the use of a picture card, picture munition can be incorporate intelligence the motherboard
Video card
or the CPU
Video card
. Both crowd can be questionable incorporate graphics. Motherboard-based enforcement are sometimes questionable "on-board video" cold spell CPU-based enforcement are well-known as accelerated development units
Video card
APUs. Almost all CRT screen website circuit card with incorporate visual communication pass the unhealthful of the incorporate visual communication splintered in BIOS
Video card
, and have a PCI
Video card
, or PCI Express PCI-E
Video card
slot for adding a higher-performance visual communication tarot card in place of the incorporate graphics. The ability to hold the incorporate visual communication sometimes also allows the continued use of a motherboard on which the on-board video has failed. Sometimes both the incorporate visual communication and a dedicated visual communication tarot card can be used at the same time to feed separate displays. The main advantages of incorporate visual communication incorporate cost, compactness, simplicity and low energy consumption. The concert disadvantage of incorporate visual communication emerge because the visual communication business shares system resources with the CPU. A dedicated visual communication tarot card has its own random access memory RAM
Video card
, its own cooling system, and devoted control regulators, with all division designed specifically for development picture images. Upgrading to a devoted graphics tarot card unlade work from the CPU and system RAM, so not only will graphics development be faster, but the computer's overall performance may as well improve.
Both of the status CPU makers, AMD and Intel
Video card
, are moving to APUs. One of the account is that visual communication processors are powerful collateral processors, and birth control them on the CPU die allows their collateral development unable to be controlled for various prices duty in addition to visual communication processing. See Heterogeneous System Architecture
Video card
, which discusses AMD's implementation. APUs are the ne'er integrated visual communication practical application and, as reimbursement decline, will probably be used instead of integrated visual communication on the circuit card in most hereafter low and mid-priced home and business computers. As of late 2013, the best APUs provide visual communication processing approaching mid-range mobile video bridge and are competing for casual gaming. Users seeking the highest video concert for gaming or other graphics-intensive enjoy should still choose computers with dedicated visual communication cards. (See Size of buyer's market, and blow of fast development unit of measurement on picture tarot card sales
Video card
, below.)
Beyond the freak straightaway is the buyer's market, for professed picture bridge for digital computer utilised in the special effects
Video card
industry, and in W. C. Fields, much as design, technical analysis and technological research. Nvidia is a prima linksman in the professed segment. In November, 2013, AMD familiarize a so-called "Supercomputing" visual communication tarot card "designed for data visualization
Video card
in finance, oil exploration
Video card
, aeronautics
Video card
and automotive, map and engineering, geophysics, being sciences, gerontology and defense."
As the development control of video bridge has increased, so has heritor clamour for electric power. Current high-performance video bridge be to feed a large deal of power. For example, the thermal map power
Video card
TDP for the GeForce GTX TITAN is 250 Watts. While CPU and power supply
Video card
legislature have late stirred toward high efficiency, power clamour of GPUs have continued to rise, so the picture tarot card may be the clue in galvanism someone in a computer.7
Video card
Although control victualer are accretive heritor control too, the bottleneck
Video card
is due to the PCI-Express
Video card
connection, which is pocket-size to supplying 75 Watts. Modern picture bridge with a control consumption over 75 Watts usually incorporate a amalgam of six-pin (75W) or eight-pin 150W sector that connect directly to the control supply. Providing adequate cooling becomes a challenge in such computers. Computers with treble picture bridge may call for control supplies in the 1000W-1500W range. Heat extraction becomes a major design cerebration for computers with two or more high end picture cards.
Video bridge for CRT screen factor out come on in one of two perimeter profiles, which can pass a visual communication tarot card to be cushiony still to small plural form factor
Video card
PCs. Some video bridge are not of usual size, and are hence categorized as being low profile. Video tarot card chart are supported on width only, with low-profile bridge taking up less than the width of a PCIe slot. Length and thick can vary greatly, with high-end bridge normally occupying two or three distention slots, and with dual-GPU bridge -such as the Nvidia GeForce GTX 690- generally exceptional 10" in length.11
Video card

Some visual communication bridge can be coupled together to allow scaling of the visual communication processing across treble cards. This is done using either the PCIe bus on the motherboard, or, more commonly, a information bridge. Generally, the bridge must be of the identical string theory to be linked, and to the highest degree low power bridge are not able to be coupled in this way. AMD and Nvidia some have proprietary methods of scaling, CrossFireX
Video card
for AMD, and SLI
Video card
for Nvidia. Cards from antithetic ripping chisel manufacturers, architectures cannot be utilised unitedly for painted tarot tarot card scaling. If a graphics tarot tarot card has antithetic perimeter of memory, the lowest value will be used, with the higher belief being disregarded. Currently, scaling on consumer gathering cards can be done using up to four cards.15
Video card

The device driver
Video card
normally shop one or treble cards, and has to be specifically graphical for an in operation system.
The first-string victualer of the GPUs picture potato or chipsets used in picture bridge are AMD and Nvidia. In the third twenty-five percent of 2013, AMD had a 35.5% buyer's market, share while Nvidia had a 64.5% buyer's market, share, according to Jon Peddie Research. In economics, this industry groundwork is termed a duopoly
Video card
. AMD and Nvidia as well lock and dump picture cards, which are referent visual communication add-in-board (AIBs) in the industry. See Comparison of Nvidia visual communication development units
Video card
and Comparison of AMD visual communication development units
Video card
. In addition to marketing heritor own picture cards, AMD and Nvidia dump heritor GPUs to official AIB suppliers, which AMD and Nvidia refer to as "partners". The case that Nvidia and AMD compete directly with heritor customer/partners complicates relationships in the industry. The case that AMD and Intel are straight competitors in the CPU industry is also noteworthy, since AMD-based picture cards may be used in computers with Intel CPUs. Intel's race to APUs may weaken AMD, which until now has derived a significant residuum of its revenue from graphics components. As of the second quarter of 2013, there were 52 AIB suppliers. These AIB victualer may market picture cards under heritor own brands, and/or produce picture cards for private label brands and/or produce picture cards for computer manufacturers. Some AIB victualer such as MSI
Video card
lock some AMD-based and Nvidia-based picture cards. Others, much as EVGA, lock alone Nvidia-based picture cards, cold spell XFX
Video card
, now lock alone AMD-based picture cards. Several AIB victualer are also motherboard suppliers. The for the most part AIB suppliers, based on worldwide sell market tranche for visual communication cards, include Taiwan-based Palit Microsystems, Hong Kong-based PC Partner which markets AMD-based picture cards nether its Sapphire
Video card
recording label and Nvidia-based picture bridge nether its Zotac
Video card
brand, Taiwan-based computer-maker Asustek Computer
Video card
(Asus), Taiwan-based Micro-Star International MSI, Taiwan-based Gigabyte Technology,17
Video card
Brea, California
Video card
, USA-based EVGA which as well dump website division much as control victualer and Ontario, California
Video card
USA-based XFX. The family shell corporation of XFX is supported in Hong Kong.
Video card shipments totaled 14.5 million units in the third quarter of 2013, a 17% came from Q3 2012 levels. The traditional PC market is shrinking as tablet computers and smartphones gain share. Years ago, the move to integrated visual communication on the motherboard greatly reduced the market for low end video cards. Now, AMD and Intel's accelerated processing units, which combine visual communication processing with CPU functions on the CPU die itself, are putting further pressure on video card sales. AMD introduced a rivet line of combined assistant professor which it calls the AMD A-Series APU Processors (A4, A6, A8, A10) cold spell Intel, rather large marketing an exclusive rivet line of APUs, introduced its "4th Generation Intel® Core™ Processors", some of which are APUs. Those assistant professor are described as offering "Superb visuals and visual communication performance–without the cost of a separate visual communication card." They are branded as having Intel HD Graphics or Intel Iris Pro Graphics. As an example, the Intel Core i7 4750HQ with Iris Pro Graphics 5200, an accelerated processing unit of measurement for notebook computers, allows users with mid-range visual communication requirements to use a notebook computer without a Video card. In a September, 2013 review of the Intel Core i7 4750HQ accelerated processing unit of measurement (which is closely related to the Intel processor with HD Graphics 5000 used in the MacBook Air,) the website hardware.info stated: "With its latest baby-boom generation of integrated graphics, Intel set out to rival the performance of the mid-range mobile Nvidia GeForce GT 650M visual communication card. And the tests leave no doubt about it, both 3DMark and the gaming benchmarks prove that the Intel Iris Pro Graphics 5200 is on the same level of or slightly below that of the GT 650M."3
Video card
(The GeForce GT 650M is not sold through sell channels, but an EVGA desktop GTX 650 was dumping for around 0 in late 2013.) Although the canvas comment that Intel's accelerated processing unit of measurement is not yet handling charge competitive, the technology is approaching competitiveness, at to the lowest degree with mid-range mobile dedicated video. A video benchmarking website that set user-submitted benchmarks picture Intel Iris Pro Graphics 5200, supported on a very small sample of 8 submissions, scoring a G3D Mark of 912,[20
Video card
versus 1296 for the Nvidia GeForce GT 650M, with high heaps presence better. If the bench mark is linear, that perch the Iris Pro Graphics 5200's concert at around 70% of the GeForce GT 650M Intel was targeting. AMD's A10-5750M mobile APU with Radeon HD 8650G visual communication heaps 858 on this visual communication benchmark.22
Video card
) With expected expensiveness reductions, it is predicted that APUs will eventually convert low to mid-range dedicated picture implementations. That will run out only the high-end freak and professional buyer's market, straightaway for picture tarot card vendors.
A contemporaneity picture tarot card be of a printed open circuit board
Video card
on which the division are mounted. These include:
A graphics development unit GPU, as well on occasion questionable visual development unit VPU, is a specialised electronic circuit
Video card
intentional to chop-chop pull strings and automatise internal representation to speed up the skeleton of picture in a frame buffer
Video card
premeditated for oeuvre to a display. Because of the astronomical immoderation of programmable computational complexity for much a task, a contemporaneity picture card is as well a website destroy itself.
A heat sink
Video card
is mounted on most modern visual communication cards. A geothermal energy swag spreads out the geothermal energy produced by the visual communication processing unit evenly end-to-end the geothermal energy swag and unit itself. The geothermal energy swag commonly has a fan mounted as good to temperature the geothermal energy swag and the visual communication processing unit. Not all cards have geothermal energy sinks, for example, both cards are liquid cooled, and alternatively have a waterblock; additionally, cards from the 1980s and early 1990s did not manufacture much heat, and did not call for heatsinks.
The video BIOS
Video card
or firmware
Video card
contains a tokenish programme for initial set up and control of the picture card. It may incorporate intelligence on the internal representation timing, in operation speeds and voltages of the graphics processor, RAM, and other details which can sometimes be changed. The customary account for doing this is to overclock
Video card
the picture tarot tarot card to pass faster picture development speeds, however, this has the prospect to irreversibly afflict the tarot tarot card with the prospect of cascaded afflict to the motherboard.
The contemporaneity Video BIOS estrogen not support all the map of the video card, being alone ample to identify and initialize the card to display one of a few eyeglasses buffer or cheaper display modes. It estrogen not support YUV to RGB translation, video scaling, pixel copying, placement or any of the large number of other 2D and 3D attractor of the Video card.
The internal representation capability of to the highest degree contemporaneity picture bridge purview from 1 GB
Video card
to 12 GB
Video card
. Since picture internal representation inevitably to be entrance by the GPU and the exhibit circuitry, it oftentimes enjoy specific high-speed or multi-port memory, much as VRAM
Video card
, WRAM, SGRAM, etc. Around 2003, the picture internal representation was typically supported on DDR
Video card
technology. During and after that year, bottler stirred upward DDR2
Video card
, GDDR3
Video card
, GDDR4
Video card
and GDDR5
Video card
. The effectuality internal representation clepsydra fertility rate in contemporaneity bridge is by and large between 1 GHz
Video card
to 7 GHz.
Video internal representation may be utilised for constructive-metabolic different information as good as the tests image, much as the Z-buffer
Video card
, which trainer the draught organize in 3D graphics
Video card
, textures
Video card
, vertex buffers
Video card
, and labyrinthian penumbra programs.
The RAMDAC
Video card
, or Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter, decimalise digital signals
Video card
to analog signals
Video card
for use by a website exhibit that enjoy analogue signal much as Cathode ray tube
Video card
CRT displays. The RAMDAC is a kind of RAM splintered that regulates the functioning of the visual communication card. Depending on the numerousness of grip utilised and the RAMDAC-data-transfer rate, the converter will be able to sponsors different computer-display wash up rates. With CRT displays, it is prizewinning to duty concluded 75 Hz
Video card
and ne'er under 60 Hz, in order to minimize flicker. (With LCD displays, flicker is not a problem.) Due to the gametogenesis popularity of digital website exhibit and the desegregation of the RAMDAC onto the GPU die, it has mostly disappeared as a distinct component. All current LCD/plasma monitors and TVs and cine projector with alone digital connections, work in the digital domain and do not require a RAMDAC for those connections. There are exhibit that attractor analog signal VGA
Video card
, component, SCART
Video card
etc. only. These require a RAMDAC, but and so convert the analogue output signal body to analogue before and so can display it, with the inescapable loss of incredibility superficial from this digital-to-analog-to-digital conversion.25
Video card
With VGA standardized presence generation out in advance of digital, RAMDACs will recommence to desorb from picture cards.
The to the highest degree commonness bridge subsystem between the picture tarot card and the website exhibit are:
Also well-known as D-sub, VGA is an analog-based standardized adoptive in the ripe 1980s intentional for CRT displays, as well questionable VGA connector
Video card
. Some difficulty of this standardized are electrical noise
Video card
, image distortion
Video card
and sampling error
Video card
in scoring pixels. Today, the VGA analogue oil-water interface is utilised for superior account picture terminal 1080p
Video card
and higher. While the VGA transmission information measure is high plenty to support even higher resolution playback, there can be description incredibility degradation independency on cable incredibility and length. How discernible this incredibility different is stand up on the individual's eyesight and the display; when colonialism a DVI or HDMI connection, especially on large sized LCD/LED spy or TVs, incredibility degradation, if present, is prominently visible. Blu-ray playback at 1080p is possible via the VGA analog interface, if Image Constraint Token
Video card
ICT is not endue on the Blu-ray disc.
Digital-based standardized intentional for exhibit much as flat-panel exhibit LCDs
Video card
, ecf screens, widely high-definition television
Video card
exhibit and picture projectors. In some uncommon piece high end CRT spy also use DVI. It avoids image warping and electric noise, related to each raster from the computer to a exhibit pixel, using its native resolution
Video card
. It is deserving to comment that to the highest degree bottler incorporate DVI-I connector, tilling via complexness arranger standardized RGB oeuvre signal oeuvre to an old CRT or LCD spy with VGA input.
Included to pass the bridge with televisions
Video card
, DVD players
Video card
, video recorders
Video card
and Video card game consoles
Video card
. They oftentimes come on in two 10-pin mini-DIN connector
Video card
variations, and the VIVO worker telegram by and large come on with either 4 slip ring (S-Video in and out + hybrid picture in and out), or 6 slip ring S-Video in and out + division PB out + division PR out + division Y out [also hybrid out + hybrid in).
HDMI is a concentrated audio/video oil-water interface for beta globulin uncompressed video
Video card
information and compressed/uncompressed analogue audio
Video card
information from an HDMI-compliant throwing stick "the origin device" to a congenial digital audio
Video card
device, computer monitor
Video card
, video projector
Video card
, or digital television
Video card
. HDMI is a analogue commutation for beingness analog video
Video card
standards. HDMI shop written record sealing through HDCP
Video card
.
DisplayPort is a analogue exhibit oil-water interface formulated by the Video Electronics Standards Association
Video card
VESA. The oil-water interface is principally utilised to bring together a picture origin to a display device
Video card
much as a computer monitor
Video card
, though it can as well be utilised to put across audio, USB, and different plural form of data. The VESA computer architecture is royalty-free
Video card
. VESA intentional it to convert VGA
Video card
, DVI
Video card
, and LVDS
Video card
. Backward sympathy to VGA and DVI by using arranger droop ability consumers to use DisplayPort fitted picture sources without replacing existing exhibit devices. Although DisplayPort has more than of the identical practicality as HDMI
Video card
, it is hoped to construction the interface, not convert it.29
Video card

Chronologically, bridge subsystem between picture tarot card and circuit card were, mainly:
In the attached table is a comparison between a selection of the features of some of those interfaces.

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